awning window - A window that pivots on an axis or near the top edge of the sash and projects toward the outdoor.
axonometric - A drawing that gives a 3D representation of an object in scale with top and bottom edges usually tilted to an angle.
baluster - One of a series of short posts or pillars that make up a Balustrade and support the rail at the top and stand on the base at the bottom.
baseboard - A strip of finish material placed at the junction of a floor and a wall.
batten - A long thin piece of rectangular shaped material supporting roof tiles or covering joints between panelling.
beam - A straight structural member that acts primarily to resist non axial loads.
buffet - A sideboard or a counter or table from which guest serve themselves food.
building envelope - The exterior structure of a building that separates the interior environment from the exterior environment.
built-in - Any feature that is directly constructed into the structure of a building.
capital - The head of a column or pilaster which is often larger than the column itself.
casement window - A window that pivots on axis at or near the vertical edge of the sash. casing - The wood finish pieces surrounding the frame of a window or door.
chase - A small closed off space accommodating plumbing and other utilities. chair rail - A moulding running around the walls of a room at chair back height.
CMU - Concrete Masonry Unit A block of concrete with or without hollow cores, designed to be laid in the same manner as brick or stone.
column - An upright structural member acting primarily in compression.
cornice - The exterior detail at the meeting of a wall and a roof overhang; a decorative molding at the intersection of a wall and a ceiling.
course - A horizontal layer of masonry units one unit high; a horizontal line of shingles or siding.
crawl space - A space that is not tall enough to stand in, located beneath the bottom floor of the building.
design development - Phase of design process which fixes and describes the size and character of a project. dimension - Measurement in length width or depth.
dormer - A structure protruding through the plane of a sloping roof, usually with a window and its own smaller roof.
double-hung window - A window with two overlapping sashes that slide vertically in tracks. eave - The horizontal edge at the low side of a sloping roof.
elevation - A drawing that views a building from any of tis sides; a vertical height above a reference point such as above sea level.
exterior - The area not completely enclosed by a building.
finish - Exposed to view; the material that is exposed to view. I.E.. finish carpentry and finish floor.
fire wall - A wall to divide two parts of a building as a deterrent to the spread of fire.
flashing - A thin continuous sheet of metal, plastic, rubber or water proof paper used to prevent the passage of water through a joint.
footing - The widened part of a foundation that spreads a load from the building across a broader area of soil.
foundation - The portion of a building that has the sole purpose of transmitting structural loads from the building into the earth.
french door - A symmetrical pair of glazed swinging doors hinged to a single frame and meeting at the center.
gable - The triangular wall beneath the end of a gable roof. glider window - A window that opens by sliding horizontally to the side.
glulam - A timber made up of a large number of small strips of wood glued together.
grade - The surface of the ground; to move earth for the purpose of bringing the surface of the ground to an intended level profile.
gypsum board - An interior facing panel. Often referred to as drywall, plasterboard, gypsum wallboard and GWB.
hip - The diagonal intersection of planes in a hip roof.
interior - The area that is completely enclosed by a building.
jamb - The vertical side of a door or window.
joist - One of a group of light, closely spaced beams used to support a floor deck or flat roof.
knee wall - A short wall under the slope of the roof.
landing - A platform in or at either end of a stair.
light - The openings between the upright mullions of a window.
lintel - A beam that carries the load of a wall across a window or door opening. material - Substances that make up the construction of a building.
moulding - Moulded or worked surfaces given to project parts of edges of buildings and the intersection of vertical and horizontal surfaces.
mullions - An upright or vertical dividing bar in a window separating lights.
parapet - The region of an exterior wall that projects above the level of the roof.
pergola - A covered walkway in a garden formed from two rows of upright pillars supporting horizontal beams. perimeter - The edge of an area.
perpendicular - Something abutting at a 90 degree angle to something else.
perspective - A type of drawing that gives a 3D view of a building or space using a specific viewpoints and vanishing points.
paver - A half-thickness brick used as finish flooring.
pilaster - A column integrated within a wall.
pile - A long slender piece of material driven into the ground to as a foundation.
pitch - The slope of a roof or other plane, often expressed as inches of rise per foot of run.
picture window - A window that is fixed and cannot be opened, usually very large.
plan - A type of drawing that indicates the horizontal layout of a floor or site.
plenum - The space between the ceiling of a room and the structural floor above. programming - A system of determining how a project will address the needs of a client.
quoin - A corner reinforcing of cut stone or bricks in a masonry wall.
rafter - A framing member that runs up and down the slope of a steep roof.
rake - The sloping edge of a steep roof.
retaining wall - A wall that is contructed to hold back earth.
riser - The vertical portion of a stair.
gable - A roof consisting of two oppositely sloping planes that intersect at a level ridge. gambrel - A roof shape consisting of two superimposed levels of gable roofs with the lower level at a steeper pitch.
hip - A roof consisting of four sloping planes that intersect to form a pyramidal or elongated pyramidal shape.
mansard - A roof shape consisting of two superimposed levels of hip roofs with the lower level at a steeper pitch.
shed - A building or dormer with a single -pitched roof. rough opening - The clear dimensions of the opening that must be provided in a wall frame to accept a given door or window unit.
run - The vertical portion of a stair. rural - Area that is not within an urban zone. sash - A frame that holds glass in a window.
schedules - A table that spells out information about construction elements.
schematic design - The phase of the design process where the massing and size of a project is determined.
scupper - An opening through which water can drain over the edge of a flat roof.
section - A type of drawing that cuts vertically through a building to show the interior and construction of a building. siding - The exterior wall finish material applied to a light frame wood structure.
sidelight - A tall narrow window alongside a door.
silhouette - The profile of a structure.
sill - The strip of wood that lies immediately on top of a concrete or masonry foundation in wood frame construction; the horizontal bottom portion of a window or a door.
site - The specific plot(s) of land on which a building is to be placed on.
slab on grade - A concrete surface lying, and supported by the ground beneath.
site plan - A drawing which shows the layout of a site including the topography, vegetation, groundwater and etc. on a site.
soffit -The undersurface of a horizontal element of a building, especially the underside of a stair or a roof overhang.
spandrel beam - A beam runs along the outside edge of a floor or a roof.
splash guard - An area at the back of a a counter where the material of counter rises up.
stud - One of a small series of small closely spaced wall framing members.
sump - A pit designed to collect water for removal fron a basement.
transition - Change of material or construction type in a building.
transom - A window directly above a door or another window.
tread - The horizontal portion of a stair which a user places their foot on.
trim - A piece of material which finishes the edge of a surface or opening. It is usually made of a different material or color from the adjacent surface.
truss - A triangular arrangement of structural members that reduces non-axial forces on the truss to a set of axial forces in the members.
vault - An arched integral roof or ceiling. vertical - Perpendicular to the horizon.
winder - A stair tread that is wider at one end than at the other.
wythe - A vertical layer of masonry one masonry unit thick.